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Schweden w

schweden w

W bzw. w (gesprochen: [veː]) ist der Buchstabe des modernen lateinischen Alphabets und In Schweden wurde der Buchstabe W erst im Jahr von der Svenska Akademien in die Ausgabe ihres Wörterbuchs aufgenommen, und. Schwedisch (Eigenbezeichnung: Audio-Datei / Hörbeispiel svenska) gehört zum ostnordischen . Xx, Yy, Zz, Åå, Ää, Öö. Das W kommt in Lehnwörtern vor und galt bis nicht als eigener Buchstabe, sondern als Schreibvariante des V. Å, . Jan. Schweden war immer unser großes Vorbild: Alle sind nett, fortschrittlich und unglaublich integrativ. Jetzt machen sie dort die Grenze dicht.

The Swedish police is a Government agency concerned with police matters. The Swedish Security Service 's responsibilities are counter-espionage , anti-terrorist activities, protection of the constitution and protection of sensitive objects and people.

Försvarsmakten Swedish Armed Forces is a government agency reporting to the Swedish Ministry of Defence and responsible for the peacetime operation of the armed forces of Sweden.

The primary task of the agency is to train and deploy peace support forces abroad, while maintaining the long-term ability to refocus on the defence of Sweden in the event of war.

The armed forces are divided into Army , Air Force and Navy. The head of the armed forces is the Supreme Commander Överbefälhavaren , ÖB , the most senior commissioned officer in the country.

Up to the King was pro forma Commander-in-Chief , but in reality it was clearly understood all through the 20th century that the Monarch would have no active role as a military leader.

Until the end of the Cold War, nearly all males reaching the age of military service were conscripted. In recent years, the number of conscripted males has shrunk dramatically, while the number of female volunteers has increased slightly.

Recruitment has generally shifted towards finding the most motivated recruits, rather than solely those otherwise most fit for service.

All soldiers serving abroad must by law be volunteers. In the total number of conscripts was 45, By it was down to 15, On 1 July Sweden stopped routine conscription, switching to an all volunteer force unless otherwise required for defence readiness.

The total forces gathered would consist of about 60, men. This could be compared with the s before the fall of the Soviet Union, when Sweden could gather up to 1,, men.

However, on 11 December , due to tensions in the Baltic area, the Swedish Government reintroduced one part of the Swedish conscription system, refresher training.

The first recruits will begin their training in As the law now is gender neutral, both men and women may have to service.

Sweden is the seventh-richest country in the world in terms of GDP gross domestic product per capita and a high standard of living is experienced by its citizens.

Sweden is an export-oriented mixed economy. Timber, hydropower and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy with a heavy emphasis on foreign trade.

Sweden is the ninth-largest arms exporter in the world. The country ranks among the highest for telephone and Internet access penetration.

Trade unions, employers' associations and collective agreements cover a large share of the employees in Sweden.

Both the prominent role of collective bargaining and the way in which the high rate of coverage is achieved reflect the dominance of self-regulation regulation by the labour market parties themselves over state regulation in Swedish industrial relations.

In Sweden's income Gini coefficient was the third lowest among developed countries, at 0. However, Sweden's wealth Gini coefficient at 0.

Danderyd , outside Stockholm, has Sweden's highest Gini coefficient of income inequality, at 0. In and around Stockholm and Scania, two of the more densely populated regions of Sweden, the income Gini coefficient is between 0.

In terms of structure, the Swedish economy is characterised by a large, knowledge-intensive and export-oriented manufacturing sector; an increasing, but comparatively small, business service sector ; and by international standards, a large public service sector.

Large organisations, both in manufacturing and services, dominate the Swedish economy. The Swedish government is seeking to reduce its costs through decreased sick leave hours and increased efficiency.

Total tax collected by Sweden as a percentage of its GDP peaked at Overall, GDP growth has been fast since reforms—especially those in manufacturing—were enacted in the early s.

Sweden is the fourth-most competitive economy in the world, according to the World Economic Forum in its Global Competitiveness Report — The book compiled an index to measure the kind of creativity it claims is most useful to business—talent, technology and tolerance.

Sweden maintains its own currency, the Swedish krona SEK , a result of the Swedes having rejected the euro in a referendum.

According to the Economic Survey of Sweden by the OECD, the average inflation in Sweden has been one of the lowest among European countries since the mids, largely because of deregulation and quick utilisation of globalisation.

Financial deregulation in the s impacted adversely on the property market, leading to a bubble and eventually a crash in the early s.

Commercial property prices fell by up to two thirds, resulting in two Swedish banks having to be taken over by the government.

In the following two decades the property sector strengthened. By , legislators, economists and the IMF were again warning of a bubble with residential property prices soaring and the level of personal mortgage debt expanding.

Sweden's energy market is largely privatised. At the same time, the use of biofuels , peat etc. Sweden was a net importer of electricity by a margin of 6 TWh.

The oil crisis strengthened Sweden's commitment to decrease dependence on imported fossil fuels. Since then, electricity has been generated mostly from hydropower and nuclear power.

The use of nuclear power has been limited, however. New motorways are still under construction and a new motorway from Uppsala to Gävle was finished on 17 October Sweden had left-hand traffic Vänstertrafik in Swedish from approximately and continued to do so well into the 20th century.

Voters rejected right-hand traffic in , but after the Riksdag passed legislation in changeover took place on 3 September , known in Swedish as Dagen H.

The Stockholm metro is the only underground system in Sweden and serves the city of Stockholm via stations. The rail transport market is privatised, but while there are many privately owned enterprises, the largest operators are still owned by state.

The counties have financing, ticket and marketing responsibility for local trains. For other trains the operators handle tickets and marketing themselves.

Most of the railways are owned and operated by Trafikverket. Most tram nets were closed in , as Sweden changed from left-side to right-side driving, but they survived in Norrköping , Gothenburg and Stockholm.

A new tram line is set to open in Lund in The largest airports include Stockholm—Arlanda Airport The most used airport for a large part of Southern Sweden is Kastrup or Copenhagen Airport which is located only 12 minutes by train from the closest Swedish railway station, Hyllie.

Copenhagen Airport also is the largest international airport in Scandinavia and Finland. Sweden also has a number of car ferry connections to several neighbouring countries.

Trelleborg is the busiest ferry port in Sweden in terms of weight transported by lorry. There are over seventy departures a day each way; during peak times, a ferry departs every fifteen minutes.

Finally, there are ferries from Strömstad near the Norwegian border to destinations around the Oslofjord in Norway. There used to be ferry services to the United Kingdom from Göteborg to destinations such as Immingham, Harwich and Newcastle, but these have been discontinued.

Sweden has two domestic ferry lines with large vessels, both connecting Gotland with the mainland. The lines leave from Visby harbour on the island, and the ferries sail to either Oskarshamn or Nynäshamn.

Sweden has one of the most highly developed welfare states in the world. During this period Sweden's economic growth was also one of the highest in the industrial world.

A series of successive social reforms transformed the country into one of the most equal and developed on earth. The consistent growth of the welfare state led to Swedes achieving unprecedented levels of social mobility and quality of life—to this day Sweden consistently ranks at the top of league tables for health, literacy and Human Development—far ahead of some wealthier countries for example the United States.

However, from the s and onwards Sweden's GDP growth fell behind other industrialised countries and the country's per capita ranking fell from 4th to 14th place in a few decades.

Sweden began slowing the expansion of the welfare state in the s, and even trimming it back. Sweden has recently been relatively quick to adopt neoliberal policies, such as privatization , financialization and deregulation , [] [] compared to countries such as France.

Also since the mids, Sweden has had the fastest growth in inequality of any developed nation, according to the OECD.

This has largely been attributed to the reduction in state benefits and a shift toward the privatisation of public services. According to Barbro Sorman, an activist of the opposition Left Party, "The rich are getting richer, and the poor are getting poorer.

Sweden is starting to look like the USA. Sweden adopted free market agricultural policies in Since the s, the agricultural sector had been subject to price controls.

In June , the Riksdag voted for a new agricultural policy marking a significant shift away from price controls. As a result, food prices fell somewhat.

However, the liberalisations soon became moot because EU agricultural controls supervened. Since the late s, Sweden has had the highest tax quota as percentage of GDP in the industrialised world, although today the gap has narrowed and Denmark has surpassed Sweden as the most heavily taxed country among developed countries.

Certain items are subject to additional taxes, e. In [update] , total tax revenue was State and municipal employees total around a third of the workforce, much more than in most Western countries.

Spending on transfers is also high. In and , 69 per cent of the employed workers is organised in trade unions. Sweden has a relatively high amount of sick leave per worker in OECD: The unemployment rate was 7.

In the 18th century Sweden's scientific revolution took off. Previously, technical progress had mainly come from mainland Europe.

Many of the companies founded by early pioneers still remain major international brands. Alfred Nobel invented dynamite and instituted the Nobel Prizes.

Lars Magnus Ericsson started the company bearing his name, Ericsson, still one of the largest telecom companies in the world.

Jonas Wenström was an early pioneer in alternating current and is along with Serbian inventor Nikola Tesla credited as one of the inventors of the three-phase electrical system.

The traditional engineering industry is still a major source of Swedish inventions, but pharmaceuticals, electronics and other high-tech industries are gaining ground.

Tetra Pak was an invention for storing liquid foods, invented by Erik Wallenberg. Losec , an ulcer medicine, was the world's best-selling drug in the s and was developed by AstraZeneca.

A large portion of the Swedish economy is to this day based on the export of technical inventions, and many large multinational corporations from Sweden have their origins in the ingenuity of Swedish inventors.

Swedish inventors held 47, patents in the United States in [update] , according to the United States Patent and Trademark Office.

As a nation, only ten other countries hold more patents than Sweden. Combined, the public and the private sector in Sweden allocate over 3. As a percentage of GDP, the Swedish government spends the most of any nation on research and development.

In , the decisions to construct Sweden's two largest scientific installations, the synchrotron radiation facility MAX IV and the European Spallation Source, were taken.

The European Spallation Source , costing some SEK 14 billion to construct, [] will be operational in and will give an approximately 30 times stronger neutron beam than any of today's existing neutron source installations.

Both facilities have strong implications on material research. The total resident population of Sweden was 10,, on 31 March The second- and third-largest cities are Gothenburg and Malmö.

Greater Gothenburg counts just over a million inhabitants and the same goes for the western part of Scania, along the Öresund.

Outside of major cities, areas with notably higher population density include the agricultural part of Östergötland, the western coast, the area around Lake Mälaren and the agricultural area around Uppsala.

The mountains and most of the remote coastal areas are almost unpopulated. Between and , approximately 1. There are more than 4.

There are no official statistics on ethnicity, but according to Statistics Sweden, around 3,, The official language of Sweden is Swedish, [7] [8] a North Germanic language, related and very similar to Danish and Norwegian , but differing in pronunciation and orthography.

Norwegians have little difficulty understanding Swedish, and Danes can also understand it, with slightly more difficulty than Norwegians.

The same goes for standard Swedish speakers, who find it far easier to understand Norwegian than Danish. The dialects spoken in Scania , the southernmost part of the country, are influenced by Danish because the region traditionally was a part of Denmark and is nowadays situated closely to it.

However, no official statistics are kept on language use. Along with Finnish, four other minority languages are also recognised: Meänkieli , Sami , Romani , and Yiddish.

Swedish became Sweden's official language on 1 July , when a new language law was implemented. In varying degrees, depending largely on frequency of interaction with English, a majority of Swedes, especially those born after World War II, understand and speak English, owing to trade links, the popularity of overseas travel, a strong Anglo-American influence and the tradition of subtitling rather than dubbing foreign television shows and films, and the relative similarity of the two languages which makes learning English easier.

English became a compulsory subject for secondary school students studying natural sciences as early as , and has been a compulsory subject for all Swedish students since the late s.

Most students also study one and sometimes two additional languages. These include but are not limited to German, French and Spanish.

Some Danish and Norwegian is at times also taught as part of Swedish courses for native speakers. Because of the extensive mutual intelligibility between the three continental Scandinavian languages Swedish speakers often use their native language when visiting or living in Norway or Denmark.

With Christianisation in the 11th century, the laws of the country changed, forbidding worship of other deities into the late 19th century.

After the Protestant Reformation in the s, a change led by Martin Luther 's Swedish associate Olaus Petri , the authority of the Roman Catholic Church was abolished and Lutheranism became widespread.

Adoption of Lutheranism was completed by the Uppsala Synod of , and it became the official religion.

During the era following the Reformation, usually known as the period of Lutheran orthodoxy , small groups of non-Lutherans, especially Calvinist Dutchmen , the Moravian Church and French Huguenots played a significant role in trade and industry, and were quietly tolerated as long as they kept a low religious profile.

With religious liberalisations in the late 18th century believers of other faiths, including Judaism and Roman Catholicism , were allowed to live and work freely in the country.

However, until it remained illegal for Lutherans to convert to another religion. The 19th century saw the arrival of various evangelical free churches , and, towards the end of the century, secularism , leading many to distance themselves from church rituals.

Leaving the Church of Sweden became legal with the so-called dissenter law of , but only under the provision of entering another Christian denomination.

The right to stand outside any religious denomination was formally established in the Law on Freedom of religion in In , the Church of Sweden was disestablished.

Sweden was the second Nordic country to disestablish its state church after Finland did so in the Church Act of At the end of , Since , only children that are christened become members.

Some , Swedes are today members of various Evangelical Protestant free churches where congregation attendance is much higher , and due to recent immigration, there are now some , Eastern Orthodox Christians and 92, Roman Catholics living in Sweden.

The first Muslim congregation was established in , when a small contingent of Tatars migrated from Finland. Islam's presence in Sweden remained marginal until the s, when Sweden started to receive migrants from the Balkans and Turkey.

Further immigration from North Africa and the Middle East have brought the estimated Muslim population to , According to the Eurobarometer Poll , [].

Sociology professor Phil Zuckerman claims that Swedes, despite a lack of belief in God, commonly question the term atheist , preferring to call themselves Christians while being content with remaining in the Church of Sweden.

Healthcare in Sweden is similar in quality to other developed nations. Sweden ranks in the top five countries with respect to low infant mortality.

It also ranks high in life expectancy and in safe drinking water. A person seeking care first contacts a clinic for a doctor's appointment, and may then be referred to a specialist by the clinic physician, who may in turn recommend either in-patient or out-patient treatment, or an elective care option.

The health care is governed by the 21 landsting of Sweden and is mainly funded by taxes, with nominal fees for patients.

Children aged 1—5 years old are guaranteed a place in a public kindergarten Swedish: Between the ages of 6 and 16, children attend compulsory comprehensive school.

The school system is largely financed by taxes. The Swedish government treats public and independent schools equally [] by introducing education vouchers in as one of the first countries in the world after the Netherlands.

Anyone can establish a for-profit school and the municipality must pay new schools the same amount as municipal schools get.

School lunch is free for all students in Sweden, and providing breakfast is also encouraged. There are a number of different universities and colleges in Sweden , the oldest and largest of which are situated in Uppsala , Lund , Gothenburg and Stockholm.

The large influx of immigrants to Swedish schools has been cited as a significant part of the reason why Sweden has dropped more than any other European country in the international PISA rankings.

Immigration has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of the history of Sweden , and in recent centuries the country has been transformed from a nation of net emigration, ending after World War I, to a nation of net immigration, from World War II onwards.

The economic, social, and political aspects of immigration have caused controversy regarding ethnicity, economic benefits, jobs for non-immigrants, settlement patterns, impact on upward social mobility , crime, and voting behaviour.

There are no exact numbers on the ethnic background of migrants and their descendants in Sweden because the Swedish government does not base any statistics on ethnicity.

This is, however, not to be confused with the migrants' national backgrounds , which are recorded. In addition, , persons were born in Sweden to two parents born abroad and another , persons had one parent born abroad with the other parent born in Sweden.

According to Eurostat , in , there were 1. Of these, , 9. In , immigration reached its highest level since records began, with , people emigrating to Sweden.

The ten largest groups of foreign-born persons in the Swedish civil registry in were from: According to an official investigation by The Swedish Pensions Agency on order from the government, the immigration to Sweden will double the state's expenses for pensions to the population.

The total immigration to Sweden for will be roughly people, and after that individuals every year. In total seven Nobel Prizes in Literature have been awarded to Swedes.

Swedish 20th-century culture is noted by pioneering works in the early days of cinema, with Mauritz Stiller and Victor Sjöström.

In the s—s, the filmmaker Ingmar Bergman and actors Greta Garbo and Ingrid Bergman became internationally noted people within cinema.

More recently, the films of Lukas Moodysson , Lasse Hallström , and Ruben Östlund have received international recognition. Throughout the s and s Sweden was seen as an international leader in what is now referred to as the " sexual revolution ", with gender equality having particularly been promoted.

The image of "hot love and cold people" emerged. Sexual liberalism was seen as part of modernisation process that by breaking down traditional borders would lead to the emancipation of natural forces and desires.

Since 1 May , Sweden repealed its "registered partnership" laws and fully replaced them with gender-neutral marriage , [] Sweden also offers domestic partnerships for both same-sex and opposite-sex couples.

Cohabitation sammanboende by couples of all ages, including teenagers as well as elderly couples, is widespread. Recently, Sweden is experiencing a baby boom.

Historical re-creations of Norse music have been attempted based on instruments found in Viking sites. The instruments used were the lur a sort of trumpet , simple string instruments, wooden flutes and drums.

Sweden has a significant folk-music scene. There is Sami music, called the joik , which is a type of chant which is part of the traditional Sami animistic spirituality.

Sweden also has a prominent choral music tradition. Out of a population of 9. In , with over million dollars in revenue, Sweden was the third-largest music exporter in the world and surpassed only by the US and the UK.

Sweden has also become known for a large number of heavy metal bands, including Bathory , Opeth , Amon Amarth and Ghost.

The renowned neo-classical power metal guitarist Yngwie Malmsteen is also from Sweden. Starting in the s, Denniz Pop 's Cheiron Studios became an international hit factory, with his disciple Max Martin responsible for Britney Spears ' breakthrough songs and for shaping the whole boy-band boom at the turn of the millennium with global hits for groups like the Backstreet Boys and 'N Sync.

In the mids, Martin came back with a more rock-tinged sound and produced major hits with artists such as Kelly Clarkson , Pink and Katy Perry.

Sweden is one of the most successful competing nations at the Eurovision Song Contest , with a total of six victories in the contest , , , , and , right behind Ireland who have seven wins.

In the Eurovision Song Contest each participating country submits an original song to be performed on live television and radio; however, no restriction on the nationality of the songwriter or the artist exists which has resulted in countries being represented by songwriters and artist who are not nationals of that country.

In recent years Swedish songwriters have been involved in the writing — entirely or partly — of entries from several countries in addition to Sweden.

For instance, in the edition of Eurovision Song Contest, Swedish songwriters and producers featured in 10 out of the 42 songs that qualified for the contest; in , the numbers were 7 songs out of the 39 songs in the contest; in , 7 songs out of 37 songs in the contest; in , 8 songs out of 40 songs in the contest; in , 12 songs out of 42 songs in the contest.

Sweden has a rather lively jazz scene. During the last sixty years or so it has attained a remarkably high artistic standard, stimulated by domestic as well as external influences and experiences.

Before the 13th century almost all buildings were made of timber, but a shift began towards stone. Early Swedish stone buildings are the Romanesque churches on the country side.

As so happens, many of them were built in Scania and are in effect Danish churches. This would include the Lund Cathedral from the 11th century and the somewhat younger church in Dalby , but also many early Gothic churches built through influences of the Hanseatic League, such as in Ystad, Malmö and Helsingborg.

Cathedrals in other parts of Sweden were also built as seats of Sweden's bishops. The Skara Cathedral is of bricks from the 14th century, and the Uppsala Cathedral in the 15th.

In the foundations of the Linköping Cathedral were made, the material was there limestone , but the building took some years to finish.

Among older structures are also some significant fortresses and other historical buildings such as at Borgholm Castle , Halltorps Manor and Eketorp fortress on the island Öland, the Nyköping fortress and the Visby city wall.

Around Sweden was out of the Middle Ages and united under King Gustav Vasa, who immediately initiated grand mansions, castles and fortresses to be built.

Some of the more magnificent include the Kalmar fortress, the Gripsholm Castle and the one at Vadstena. In the next two centuries, Sweden was designated by Baroque architecture and later the rococo.

Notable projects from that time include the city Karlskrona, which has now also been declared a World Heritage Site and the Drottningholm Palace.

The style came to dominate in the following decades. Some notable projects of this kind were the Million Programme , offering affordable living in large apartment complexes.

Swedes are among the greatest consumers of newspapers in the world, and nearly every town is served by a local paper. The country's main quality morning papers are Dagens Nyheter liberal , Göteborgs-Posten liberal , Svenska Dagbladet liberal conservative and Sydsvenska Dagbladet liberal.

The two largest evening tabloids are Aftonbladet social democratic and Expressen liberal. The ad-financed, free international morning paper, Metro International , was founded in Stockholm, Sweden.

The country's news is reported in English by, among others, The Local liberal. The public broadcasting companies held a monopoly on radio and television for a long time in Sweden.

Licence funded radio broadcasts started in A second radio network was started in and a third opened in response to pirate radio stations.

Non-profit community radio was allowed in and in commercial local radio started. The licence-funded television service was officially launched in A second channel, TV2 , was launched in These two channels operated by Sveriges Television since the late s held a monopoly until the s when cable and satellite television became available.

The first Swedish language satellite service was TV3 which started broadcasting from London in In the government announced it would begin taking applications from private television companies wishing to broadcast on the terrestrial network.

TV4, which had previously been broadcasting via satellite, was granted a permit and began its terrestrial broadcasts in , becoming the first private channel to broadcast television content from within the country.

Around half the population are connected to cable television. Digital terrestrial television in Sweden started in and the last analogue terrestrial broadcasts were terminated in With the conversion of the land to Christianity around AD, Sweden entered the Middle Ages , during which monastic writers preferred to use Latin.

Therefore, there are only a few texts in the Old Swedish from that period. Swedish literature only flourished when the Swedish language was standardised in the 16th century, a standardisation largely due to the full translation of the Bible into Swedish in This translation is the so-called Gustav Vasa Bible.

With improved education and the freedom brought by secularisation , the 17th century saw several notable authors develop the Swedish language further.

Some key figures include Georg Stiernhielm 17th century , who was the first to write classical poetry in Swedish; Johan Henric Kellgren 18th century , the first to write fluent Swedish prose; Carl Michael Bellman late 18th century , the first writer of burlesque ballads; and August Strindberg late 19th century , a socio-realistic writer and playwright who won worldwide fame.

The early 20th century continued to produce notable authors, such as Selma Lagerlöf, Nobel laureate , Verner von Heidenstam Nobel laureate and Pär Lagerkvist Nobel laureate In recent decades, a handful of Swedish writers have established themselves internationally, including the detective novelist Henning Mankell and the writer of spy fiction Jan Guillou.

The Swedish writer to have made the most lasting impression on world literature is the children's book writer Astrid Lindgren, and her books about Pippi Longstocking , Emil , and others.

In , the second best-selling fiction author in the world was Stieg Larsson , whose Millennium series of crime novels is being published posthumously to critical acclaim.

Apart from traditional Protestant Christian holidays , Sweden also celebrates some unique holidays, some of a pre-Christian tradition. They include Midsummer celebrating the summer solstice ; Walpurgis Night Valborgsmässoafton on 30 April lighting bonfires; and Labour Day or Mayday on 1 May is dedicated to socialist demonstrations.

The day of giver-of-light Saint Lucia , 13 December, is widely acknowledged in elaborate celebrations which betoken its Italian origin and commence the month-long Christmas season.

Furthermore, there are official flag day observances and a Namesdays in Sweden calendar. In August many Swedes have kräftskivor crayfish dinner parties.

The Sami , one of Sweden's indigenous minorities, have their holiday on 6 February and Scania celebrate their Scanian Flag day on the third Sunday in July.

Swedish cuisine, like that of the other Scandinavian countries Denmark , Norway and Finland , was traditionally simple.

Fish particularly herring , meat, potatoes and dairy products played prominent roles. Akvavit is a popular alcoholic distilled beverage , and the drinking of snaps is of cultural importance.

The traditional flat and dry crisp bread has developed into several contemporary variants. Regionally important foods are the surströmming a fermented fish in northern Sweden and eel in Scania in southern Sweden.

Swedish traditional dishes, some of which are many hundreds of years old, others perhaps a century or less, are still a very important part of Swedish everyday meals, in spite of the fact that modern-day Swedish cuisine adopts many international dishes.

In August, at the traditional feast known as crayfish party, kräftskiva , Swedes eat large amounts of crayfish boiled with dill.

Swedes have been fairly prominent in the film area through the years. Amongst several directors who have made internationally successful films can be mentioned Ingmar Bergman, Lukas Moodysson and Lasse Hallström.

These companies, however, are composed largely of buyers who import fashionable goods from throughout Europe and America, continuing the trend of Swedish business toward multinational economic dependency like many of its neighbours.

Sport activities are a national movement with half of the population actively participating in organised sporting activities.

The two main spectator sports are football and ice hockey. Second to football, horse sports have the highest number of practitioners who are mostly women.

The Swedish national men's ice hockey team, affectionately known as Tre Kronor English: Three Crowns ; the national symbol of Sweden , is regarded as one of the best in the world.

The team has won the World Championships nine times, placing them third in the all-time medal count. Tre Kronor also won Olympic gold medals in and In , Tre Kronor became the first national hockey team to win both the Olympic and world championships in the same year.

The Swedish national football team has seen some success at the World Cup in the past, finishing second when they hosted the tournament in , and third twice, in and Athletics has enjoyed a surge in popularity due to several successful athletes in recent years, such as Carolina Klüft and Stefan Holm.

Due to its northerly latitude numerous world class winter sports athletes have come from Sweden. The following are links to international rankings of Sweden from selected research institutes and foundations including economic output and various composite indices.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Sweden disambiguation.

For other uses of "Swedish" or the Swedish word "svensk a ", see Swedish disambiguation. Greater coat of arms. Du gamla, Du fria [b] Thou ancient, thou free.

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Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Modernization of Sweden and Swedish emigration to the United States. History of Sweden —present.

Counties of Sweden and Municipalities of Sweden. Diese Regionen werden wohl permanent verbleiben; die Zusammenfassung der Provinziallandtage im Übrigen ist jedoch ein Prozess, der sich fortsetzen wird; welche Provinziallandtage zu welchen Regionen zusammengefasst werden ist jedoch vor allem in Mittelschweden noch unklar; ein Beschluss dazu wird erwartet.

Die Gemeinden stellen die Verwaltungseinheit unter den Provinziallandtagen dar. In Schweden gibt es Gemeinden. Zwischen und wurden teilweise die Grundlagen für ein Sozialsystem geschaffen, aber erst ab den er-Jahren, insbesondere nach der Regierungsübernahme der Sozialdemokratischen Arbeiterpartei , wurde der Aufbau des Wohlfahrtsstaates als politisches Projekt vorangetrieben.

Erst im letzten Jahrzehnt kam es zu einschneidenden Veränderungen. Eine schwere Wirtschaftskrise zu Beginn der er-Jahre führte zu einer Kürzung von Sozialleistungen und die erwartete demographische Entwicklung führte zu einem radikalen Umbau des Rentensystems, das nun an die wirtschaftliche Entwicklung gekoppelt ist.

Die schwedische Polizei Polisen verfügt über ca. Die schwedische Sicherheitspolizei Säkerhetspolisen ist ein Nachrichtendienst mit polizeilichen Befugnissen.

Die schwedischen Streitkräfte schwedisch Försvarsmakten bestehen aus den vier Teilstreitkräften. Die schwedische Armee ist formell als Verwaltungsbehörde organisiert.

Als solche untersteht sie direkt der schwedischen Regierung und nicht, wie in vielen anderen Staaten, dem Verteidigungsminister.

Die elf- bis siebzehnmonatige Wehrpflicht wurde am 1. Juli ausgesetzt, nachdem seit Ende des Kalten Krieges bereits immer weniger Soldaten eingezogen wurden In Krisenzeiten kann die Regierung die allgemeine Wehrpflicht, aus Gründen der Gleichstellung auch für Frauen, per Beschluss wieder einführen.

Der Verteidigungshaushalt beträgt umgerechnet etwa 4,2 Milliarden Euro 40 Mrd. Aufgrund des Kalten Krieges sah Schweden einen Beitritt zu den Europäischen Gemeinschaften vor als unvereinbar mit seiner Neutralitätspolitik an.

Das Land sprach sich für die Erweiterung um die Länder Mittel- und Osteuropas, darunter auch die baltischen Staaten aus. Juli bis zum Dezember hatte Schweden die Präsidentschaft des Europäischen Rates inne.

Noch in der ersten Hälfte des Erst in der zweiten Hälfte des Jahrhunderts setzte eine umfassende Industrialisierung ein, die bis zur Weltwirtschaftskrise von die Grundlagen für eine moderne Industriegesellschaft legte.

Die Industrialisierung basierte anfänglich auf gutem Zugang zu Rohstoffen und der Verarbeitung dieser Ressourcen an Ort und Stelle beispielsweise Eisenerz mit Hütten in Svealand, unendliche Wälder im Norden, einer Vielzahl an Sägewerken entlang der norrländischen Küste.

Die Entwicklung erreichte in der Mitte der er-Jahre ihren Höhepunkt, seit den er-Jahren geht die Anzahl der Beschäftigten in der Industrie zurück, während der Dienstleistungsbereich wächst.

Schweden hat in den zurückliegenden Jahren die weltweite Wirtschafts- und Finanzkrise vergleichsweise gut gemeistert. Der Gesamtbesitz an Immobilien, Aktien und Bargeld belief sich auf insgesamt 1.

Das Vermögen pro erwachsene Person beträgt Der Gini-Koeffizient bei der Vermögensverteilung lag bei 83,2, was auf eine inzwischen recht hohe Vermögensungleichheit hindeutet.

Die schwedische Landwirtschaft ist durch die geologischen Voraussetzungen und das Klima geprägt. Angebaut werden vor allem Getreide, Kartoffeln und Ölpflanzen.

Drei Viertel der landwirtschaftlichen Betriebe verfügen auch über Wald und verbinden Landwirtschaft mit Forstwirtschaft. Schweden ist reich an Bodenschätzen, die schon ab dem Mittelalter abgebaut wurden.

Eisenerz wird, nach der Eisen- und Stahlkrise der er-Jahre, nur noch in Norrland Kiruna , Gällivare - Malmberget abgebaut und exportiert.

Seit finden in ganz Schweden mit Schwerpunkt auf dem hohen Norden verstärkte Anstrengungen bei der Suche nach Erzen statt. Die Samen befürchten dabei erhebliche negative Auswirkungen des Bergbaus auf die Rentierwirtschaft und die empfindliche Natur.

Elektrische Energie wird in Schweden vor allem durch erneuerbare Energien und Kernenergie produziert: Auch am Primärenergieverbrauch hat die Wasserkraft einen erheblich Anteil: Unter den Mitgliedstaaten der Europäischen Union trägt Schwedens Wasserkraft am meisten zur Versorgung aus erneuerbaren Energiequellen bei: Strom, Wärme und Verkehr, vollständig aus der Nutzung fossiler Energieträger aussteigen zu wollen, um die Energiewende sowie den Klimaschutz voranzubringen.

Hierfür soll vor allem die Windenergie an Land ausgebaut werden, wobei die schwankende Energieabgabe der Windkraftanlagen durch die vorhandenen Wasserkraftwerke sowie stärkere Vernetzung mit Nachbarstaaten zum überregionalen Stromaustausch ausgeglichen werden soll.

Das hatte zur Folge, dass das Parlament entschied, keine weiteren Kernkraftwerke mehr zu bauen und die zwölf vorhandenen bis abzuschalten. Dieser Ausstiegsplan wurde nur teilweise vollzogen.

Diese bestimmte unter anderem, einen der Reaktoren am Standort Barsebäck vor dem 1. Juli und den zweiten vor dem 1. Juli stillzulegen, allerdings unter der Voraussetzung, dass deren Stromproduktion kompensiert werden kann.

Der frühere Beschluss, alle Reaktoren bis stillzulegen, wurde aufgehoben. Der Verzicht auf die Nutzung der Kernenergie wird in Schweden kontrovers diskutiert.

Die Industrie befürchtet den Verlust einer preiswerten Stromerzeugung und damit eine Beeinträchtigung ihrer internationalen Wettbewerbsfähigkeit.

Zudem betonen Kritiker, dass ein Verzicht auf die Kernenergienutzung ohne über ausreichende andere und verlässliche Stromerzeugungstechniken zu verfügen erhebliche negative Folgen für die schwedische Volkswirtschaft haben könne.

Die Leistung der drei noch in Betrieb befindlichen Kernkraftwerke ist in den letzten Jahren erheblich gesteigert worden.

Diese Steigerung ermöglichte die Kompensation des abgeschalteten Kernkraftwerks Barsebäck. Der Schwedische Reichstag beschloss , aus Naturschutzgründen keine weiteren Ausbauten von Gewässern zuzulassen.

Die Betreiber von Kernkraftwerken gehen von einer Nutzungszeit der bestehenden Anlagen etwa bis zum Jahr aus. Februar beschloss der Schwedische Reichstag den Neubau von zehn Reaktoren in den drei bestehenden Kraftwerken.

Vattenfall kündigte an, zwei Blöcke im Kernkraftwerk Ringhals bzw. Im Jahr erklärte die schwedische Regierung, bis vollständig auf erneuerbare Energien umsteigen zu wollen, um sich von der Abhängigkeit von fossilen Rohstoffen zu befreien.

Der Bericht empfiehlt bis zum Jahr folgende Ziele zu verwirklichen: Um die Ziele zu erreichen sollen bis zum Jahr mindestens 75 Prozent aller neuen Gebäude in Niedrigenergiebauweise errichtet werden.

Bestehende Häuser sollen modernisiert und auf Fern- bzw. Nahwärme , Biokraftstoffe oder Wärmepumpenheizungen umgerüstet werden. Im Jahr war Schweden das Land, in dem die Energiewende weltweit am weitesten vorangeschritten war.

Dennoch steht der private Dienstleistungsbereich für mehr als zwei Drittel der Produktion. Euro, zu Schwedens BIP bei.

Schwedens Wirtschaft ist stark vom internationalen Handel abhängig. Vergleichsweise hoch ist der Anteil ausländischer Direktinvestitionen in Schweden.

Das kann darauf zurückgeführt werden, dass die schwedische Wirtschaft von einer kleinen Anzahl international tätiger Konzerne dominiert wird.

Etwa 50 Konzerne kommen für zwei Drittel des schwedischen Exportes auf. Schweden besitzt ein gut ausgebautes Eisenbahnnetz , das vor allem im dichter besiedelten Süden die wichtigsten Städte miteinander verbindet.

Daneben existieren mehrere kleinere Eisenbahngesellschaften mit lokaler Bedeutung. In den letzten Jahren ist das Eisenbahnnetz aus ökonomischen Gründen verkleinert worden.

Das betraf beispielsweise die Inlandsbahn nach Nordschweden. Schweden ist mit Dänemark zwischen Malmö und Kopenhagen über die Öresundverbindung verbunden.

In Deutschland waren es im selben Jahr 4,3 Tote. Autobahnen motorväg verbinden hauptsächlich die drei Ballungsregionen um Stockholm, Göteborg und Malmö.

Über die Öresundbrücke verläuft eine mautpflichtige Autobahn. Bis herrschte in Schweden Linksverkehr. Überlandbusse stellen ein beliebtes Verkehrsmittel dar, weil sie preisgünstig sind und ein engmaschiges Netz anbieten.

Als Land mit einer langen Küstenlinie und vielen natürlichen Seehäfen hat Schweden traditionell eine weit entwickelte Schifffahrt.

Insbesondere die Küstenschifffahrt und die Fährverbindungen besitzen eine hohe Bedeutung. Januar wird Trettondedag jul dreizehnter Weihnachtstag, auch Trettondag jul begangen.

Dieser Tag entspricht dem deutschen Dreikönigstag und ist im hauptsächlich protestantischen Schweden ein staatlicher Feiertag.

Januar ist die Weihnachtszeit vorbei. Es finden gelegentlich Abschlussfeste mit Weihnachtsbaumplünderung statt.

Die Kerzen und der Schmuck werden entfernt und der Baum hinausbefördert. Karfreitag und Ostermontag sind gesetzliche Feiertage. Der Valborgsmässoafton wird am April gefeiert und entspricht der deutschen Walpurgisnacht.

Es werden Reden über den Frühling gehalten und Frühlingslieder gesungen. Mai ein wichtiges Studentenfest.

Im Anschluss an das feierliche Mützenaufsetzen um 15 Uhr zieht man im champagne-galopp den Carolinahügel hinunter bis in die überfüllten Studentenkneipen, wo ausgelassene Trinkgelage beginnen.

Juni, Svenska flaggans dag , ist der offizielle Nationalfeiertag Schwedens. Dieser Nationaltag wird jedoch nicht richtig gefeiert und unter der Bevölkerung weithin als unbedeutend empfunden.

Das Midsommarfest wird in der ersten Nacht zum Samstag nach dem Die Heftigkeit des Feierns dieses Wochenendes ist nur mit Weihnachten vergleichbar.

Der Feiertag ist eine uralte Tradition und wurzelt in den vorgeschichtlichen Sommersonnenwendfeiern.

Um den mit Birkenreisig und Blumen geschmückten Maibaum, das vielleicht bekannteste schwedische Nationalsymbol, wird überall in Schweden getanzt und gesungen.

Im ganzen Land herrscht ausgelassene Feststimmung. Im August kamen früher die ersten frischen Krebse auf den Markt. Das dazugehörige Fest wird Kräftskiva genannt und kann zu beliebiger Zeit stattfinden.

Man isst, so viel man schafft, von den in einem kräftigen Dillsud gekochten Krebsen und trinkt dazu Schnäpse. Als Schmuck dienen Girlanden und lustige Hüte.

In Nordschweden gibt es zum Ende des Sommers noch das Surströmmingsskiva. Der Verzehr der in einer Dose vorgegorenen Heringe mit Kartoffeln oder tunnbröd Dünnbrot — eine Vorstufe des Knäckebrots aus Norrland erfordert aber unempfindliche Geruchsnerven.

Das Luciafest beginnt am Morgen des Dezember und ist in Schweden der Tag der Lichterkönigin. Im ganzen Land werden Schulen und Arbeitsstätten in den frühen Morgenstunden von magisch schimmernden Luciazügen besucht.

Zusammen singen sie die traditionellen Gesänge, die zur Vorweihnachtszeit und zu Weihnachten gehören. Von diesem Tag an und über die gesamte Weihnachtszeit hinweg isst man ein besonderes, mit Safran gewürztes und gefärbtes, Hefegebäck Lussekatter.

Bei der Rangliste der Pressefreiheit , welche von Reporter ohne Grenzen herausgegeben wird, belegte Schweden Platz 2 von Ländern. Nachdem in den 80er Jahren Kabelfernsehen eingeführt wurde und somit auch ausländische Privatsender in Schweden zu sehen waren, wurden ab auch schwedische Anbieter für privates Radio und Fernsehen zugelassen.

Zu weiteren Printmedien siehe auch die Liste von Zeitungen. Die schwedische Literatur ist ein Teil der skandinavischen Literatur. Ein weltbekannter schwedischer DJ ist Avicii.

Die Melodien sind Signalrufe für andere Kuhhüterinnen, die verschiedene Bedeutungen haben können verlorenes Tier, wiedergefundenes Tier usw.

Ob die Melodiefolgen durch Musikinstrumente Kuhhörner, Luren geprägt sind oder von Anfang an gesungen wurden, kann nicht mit Sicherheit bestimmt werden.

In der Tanzmusik, die sich wohl vor allem im Barock entwickelte, dominieren die Geige Spielmannsmusik , die sich seit Ende des Jahrhunderts in Schweden verbreitete, und die Tanzformen der Polka ursprünglich aus Böhmen , des Menuetts und der Polska.

Dabei ist man sich nicht einig, inwieweit die Tanzform der Polska teilweise bereits als Bauerntanz vor polnischen Einflüssen im Vor dem allgemeinen Gebrauch der Geige waren die Schlüsselfidel schwedisch nyckelharpa , seit dem Spätmittelalter gebräuchlich und die Sackpfeife übliche Volksinstrumente.

Die nyckelharpa konnte sich als Instrument bis in die Gegenwart halten. Regeringen är ansvarig inför riksdagen. Vid val till riksdagen finns den s.

Sverige har fyra grundlagar: Riksdagsordningen har status mellan grundlag och vanlig lag. Regeringsformen inleds med följande portalparagraf:.

Grundlagen skrevs delvis med syftet att "med ett penndrag" kunna avveckla monarkin, och flera partier har införandet av republik inskrivet i sina partiprogram.

Regeringen styr landet och tillsätts efter riksdagsvalen genom förhandlingar som leds av riksdagens talman. Statsministern utser i sin tur ministrarna i regeringen.

Kommuner och myndigheter har en ovanligt stark ställning som enskilda instanser, och kommunernas självstyre är inskrivet i grundlagen.

I Sverige finns sammanlagt runt olika statliga myndigheter och bolag. En ovanlig politisk institution — och som uppfanns i Sverige — är ombudsmannainstitutionen.

Sverige har flera ombudsmän som tillgodoser enskildas rättigheter mot myndigheter, organisationer och företag. I Europeiska kommissionen sitter svenskan Cecilia Malmström L , men representerar inte Sveriges, utan Europas, intressen.

Under större delen av talet har Sverige i huvudsak haft fem olika partier i parlamentet, riksdagen , som grovt uppräknat har representerat socialism , socialdemokrati , liberalism , konservatism samt landsbygdens intressen.

I slutet av talet tillkom riksdagspartierna Miljöpartiet — de Gröna och Kristdemokraterna Sverigedemokraterna finns i riksdagen sedan I valet röstades Ny Demokrati in i riksdagen, men kom efter valet att nästan försvinna helt ur svensk politik.

Sedan valet är de största partierna utanför riksdagen: Feministiskt initiativ , Piratpartiet samt Enhet.

I EU-parlamentet representeras Sverige av riksdagspartierna och, sedan EU-parlamentsvalet i juni , Feministiskt initiativ.

Moderaternas partiledare Fredrik Reinfeldt innehade posten som Sveriges statsminister, dock efter riksdagsvalet som ledare för en minoritetsregering.

Utrikespolitiskt tillhör Sverige de stater som är medlemmar i flest internationella organisationer och som är mest positiva till multilateralt samarbete.

Ett utmärkande drag för polisen i Sverige är att hela polisväsendet, som omfattade 17 poliser, är statligt, även om länspolisen i varje län utgör en egen myndighet.

Domstolsväsendet är uppdelat i allmänna domstolar , allmänna förvaltningsdomstolar och specialdomstolar. Verksamheten i de allmänna domstolarna är uppdelad i olika rättsinstanser.

Dessa är lokala tingsrätter och förvaltningsrätter , vars domar eller beslut kan överklagas till regionala appellationsdomstolar , hovrätter och kammarrätter , med Högsta domstolen och Högsta förvaltningsdomstolen tidigare Regeringsrätten , som högsta instans i respektive system.

Hit hör Arbetsdomstolen , Marknadsdomstolen , Patentbesvärsrätten , mark- och miljödomstolarna , fastighetsdomstolarna och migrationsdomstolarna.

En dom i Arbetsdomstolen eller Marknadsdomstolen kan inte överklagas. Den 2 mars , beslutade regeringen att totalförsvarspliktiga ska vara skyldiga att fullgöra mönstring respektive grundutbildning med värnplikt.

Sverige är uppdelat i 21 län. I varje län finns en länsstyrelse , utnämnd av Sveriges regering. Varje län är vidare uppdelat i kommuner , med totalt kommuner.

Historiskt och traditionellt finns även uppdelning i landskap och landsdelar. Varje län utom Gotlands har ett landsting.

Ibland delas Sverige in även i landsdelar , landskap och stift. Uppdelning i stift enligt Svenska kyrkan:. De som känner till landet har dock sällan negativa uppfattningar om det.

Revolutionen innebar ökad produktion per person, förstärkt arbetsdelning , ökad marknadsproduktion och kapitalbildning. Handeln och industrin stod i förgrunden för statens intressen under talet.

Livsmedelstullarna sänktes, alla import- och exportförbud, utom förbudet mot export av järnmalm, avskaffades.

Det var en period av ökad frihandel som lade grunden till detta. Sveriges valuta är svensk krona SEK. Sveriges köpkraftsjusterade bruttonationalprodukt uppskattades till ,5 miljarder amerikanska dollar.

Landet är sedan medlem i EU: Sveriges ekonomi är en marknadsekonomi med en omfattande skattefinansierad sektor och omfördelning av inkomster. Landets tjänsteproduktion utgör cirka 70 procent av BNP.

Viktiga näringar i Sverige innefattar tjänster , skogsbruk , industri samt gruvdrift se Gruvdrift i Sverige. Andra näringar av betydelse inkluderar jordbruk viktiga jordbruksprodukter är vete , potatis , sockerbetor , nötkreatur och fisk.

Huvudstaden Stockholm, med Stockholmsbörsen och flera bankers huvudkontor, är Nordens främsta finanscentrum. Landet har ett modernt distributionssystem, bra interna och externa kommunikationsmedel och en välutbildad arbetsstyrka.

Handel med andra europeiska länder utgör en betydande del av Sveriges utrikeshandel där Tyskland är landets viktigaste handelspartner.

Dessa omfattar drygt halva Sveriges BNP och är en av världens högsta. Merparten av de offentliga utgifterna finansieras via olika typer av skatter.

I den nära historien har de offentliga finanserna inte alltid balanserat. Sverige har, särskilt sedan mitten av talet, ackumulerat en statsskuld motsvarande drygt miljarder kronor brutto.

Sverige har världens sjunde högsta levnadsstandard enligt Human Development Index , med index 0, av 1,0. Inkomstojämlikheten har dock ökat i Sverige under mer än ett decennium.

I december offentliggjorde TCO en rapport som visar att var tredje arbetslös i Sverige saknar a-kassa och därmed bara har en garanterad inkomst motsvarande existensminimum.

Sverige är ett av de länder i världen som har det högsta sociala kapitalet. Med det menas att tilliten mellan medborgarna som individer och till myndigheter är mycket hög.

Flera andra europeiska länder hamnade dock före Sverige. Jämför artikeln om riksrätt. I varje län ska det finnas en kollektivtrafikmyndighet.

Marknaden är avreglerad sedan talet. Denna sorterar under Trafikverket. Fram till var det en egen myndighet som kallades Rikstrafiken.

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